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Categories & Keywords

Category:Animals
Subcategory:Snow Wildlife
Subcategory Detail:
Keywords:resting, rest, ruminating, ruminate, grazing, graze, herd, "ice age", horn, horns, relic, Pleistocene, Scandinavia, Europe, wildlife, bull, bulls, male, males, introduction, Greenland, introduced, mountains, winter, snow, Caprinae, Bovidae, arctic, mammal, musk oxen, musk-oxen, muskoxen, Ovibos moschatus, musk ox, musk-ox, muskox
Photo Info

Dimensions7360 x 4912
Original file size14.4 MB
Image typeJPEG
Color spacesRGB
Date taken23-Feb-14 04:54
Date modified18-Mar-14 09:50
Shooting Conditions

Camera makeNIKON CORPORATION
Camera modelNIKON D800
Focal length600 mm
Focal length (35mm)600 mm
Max lens aperturef/5.7
Exposure1/1600 at f/7.1
FlashNot fired, compulsory mode
Exposure bias+2/3 EV
Exposure modeAuto
Exposure prog.Aperture priority
ISO speedISO 1000
Metering modePattern
Digital zoom1x
Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) grazing and ruminating, Dovrefjell National Park, Norway

Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) grazing and ruminating, Dovrefjell National Park, Norway

Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) grazing and ruminating, Dovrefjell National Park, Norway. Muskoxen evolved in Asia and adapted to arctic tundra environments. Muskoxen became extinct in Europe (last records are from Sweden about 9,000 years ago) and Asia (last records are from the Taymyr peninsula in Russia about 2,000 years ago), probably primarily as a result of over hunting by people. Muskoxen crossed into North America from Siberia between 200,000 and 90,000 years ago and they survived in Alaska, northern Canada and Greenland. Muskoxen were reintroduced in Europe and Asia relatively recently. Muskoxen were first reintroduced in Dovrefjell National Park in Norway in 1931-1932, but these animals were all killed during the second world war. A second reintroduction attempt (1947-1953) was successful though. The muskoxen population size in Dovrefjell National Park is currently estimated at several hundred individuals.