HIGHWAYS, WILDLIFE, AND MITIGATION MEASURES

This page contains photos related to highways, wildlife and mitigation measures and other road ecology topics. The images are of animals alive on the road, animals killed by cars, and of mitigation measures that are designed to reduce the number of wildlife-vehicle collisions. These measures include the often used but probably largely ineffective wildlife warning signs and deer mirrors and reflectors. Wildlife crossing structures such as overpasses, bridges, ecoducts, pipes, culverts, and underpasses are much more effective in reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions, especially when used in combination with wildlife fencing and jump-outs that allow animals to escape from the fenced road corridor. These measures are typically targeted at large mammal species that pose the greatest threat to human safety (e.g. large ungulates such as deer, elk and moose). However, these measures can and have also been implemented because of conservation or ecosystem integrity concerns, or ethical reasons. Mitigation measures may then also target other species groups, including invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, small and medium-sized mammals, and large carnivores, particularly if they are threatened or endangered. Rope bridges, portals with planks or stand alone poles are a unique type of crossing structure. They are installed to encourage arboreal mammals such as martens, dormouse, squirrels, and some marsupial species to cross roads. The location, type, dimensions, and other features related to the structures (e.g. soil, cover, vegetation, litter, row of tree stumps, ponds, streams) should be based on the needs or preferences of the species concerned. This is critical as these factors influence the main purpose of the structures; to provide safe crossing opportunities for wildlife and to help ensure the long term population viability for the species concerned. Human presence in the landscape can make the implementation of fencing and crossing structures more challenging, but there are some solutions. For example, when access roads are present, gaps in the fence can be mitigated through wildlife guards or gates that discourage animals from accessing the main road. Animal detection systems are designed to detect large animals as they approach the road and then activate warning signs so that drivers can slow down and be more alert. They are a relatively new mitigation measure and, although there have been some encouraging results, they should still be considered experimental. While mitigation measures cost money they can also reduce costs associated with wildlife-vehicle collisions. Some mitigation measures are very effective and can generate a financial benefit to society; they save more money than they cost. In summary, mitigation measures do work; they improve human safety, are good for conservation, and they can also help society save money.

Please contact me if you would like to use any of the images. All content © Marcel Huijser

Animals alive on road

247 photos
Animals alive on road

Road-killed animals

596 photos
Road-killed animals

Damaged cars, wildlife-vehicle collisions

4 photos
Damaged cars, wildlife-vehicle collisions

Wildlife overpasses

164 photos
Wildlife overpasses

Road tunnels, landscape bridges and very wide overpasses

19 photos
Road tunnels, landscape bridges and  very wide overpasses

Overpasses for arboreal mammals

174 photos
Overpasses for arboreal mammals

Wildlife underpasses

220 photos
Wildlife underpasses

Multifunctional overpasses

118 photos
Multifunctional overpasses

Multifunctional underpasses

184 photos
Multifunctional underpasses

Viaducts, very long bridges

13 photos
Viaducts, very long bridges

Animal detection systems

230 photos
Animal detection systems

Wildlife warning signs

383 photos
Wildlife warning signs

wildlife mirrors and reflectors

50 photos
wildlife mirrors and reflectors

Wildlife fencing

266 photos
Wildlife fencing

Livestock fences

36 photos
Livestock fences

Wildlife guards and gates

110 photos
Wildlife guards and gates

Wildlife jump-outs or escape ramps

54 photos
Wildlife jump-outs or escape ramps

One-way gates

7 photos
One-way gates

Erosion and erosion control

109 photos
Erosion and erosion control

Retaining walls

11 photos
Retaining walls

Wind, water, flooding, sand, snow, rocks, lava

36 photos
Wind, water, flooding, sand, snow, rocks, lava

Dust

21 photos
Dust

Vegetation management, mowing, brushing, clipping and cutting

9 photos
Vegetation management, mowing, brushing, clipping and cutting

Street lights and other lighting

19 photos
Street lights and other lighting

Seasonal road closure

6 photos
Seasonal road closure

Night time road closure

4 photos
Night time road closure

Barriers to keep vehicles on road

12 photos
Barriers to keep vehicles on road

Noise mitigation

7 photos
Noise mitigation

nest boxes

7 photos
nest boxes

Other mitigation measures

16 photos
Other mitigation measures

Roads and highways

60 photos
Roads and highways

Tracks, scat and hair

34 photos
Tracks, scat and hair

Researchers at work

124 photos
Researchers at work

Off-road vehicles

3 photos
Off-road vehicles

Air quality

2 photos
Air quality

Pipelines, power lines

19 photos
Pipelines, power lines

Hiking, biking, horseback riding and trails

142 photos
Hiking, biking, horseback riding and trails

Other road or road ecology images

23 photos
Other road or road ecology images

Lighthawk flight aerial photos US Hwy 93

34 photos
Lighthawk flight aerial photos US Hwy 93

Posters

2 photos
Posters

Road signs

65 photos
Road signs

Road and roadside art

1 photos
Road and roadside art

No stopping zone signs

5 photos
No stopping zone signs

Traffic calming

65 photos
Traffic calming

Mile or kilometer markers

5 photos
Mile or kilometer markers

Public roads and private land

2 photos
Public roads and private land

Median barriers

3 photos
Median barriers

Snow mobiles Yellowstone National Park

7 photos
Snow mobiles Yellowstone National Park

Highway construction and reconstruction

24 photos
Highway construction and reconstruction

Road surface

4 photos
Road surface

Curbs

5 photos
Curbs

Roadside shrines

6 photos
Roadside shrines

Turtle research

44 photos
Turtle research

Dirt roads in southern Pantanal, Brazil

174 photos
Dirt roads in southern Pantanal, Brazil

Camper van

5 photos
Camper van

Getting stuck

4 photos
Getting stuck